Education Opportunity Network

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Test Obsession Is Killing Education

Scores on the SAT – “the nation’s most widely used” college entrance exam – made news headlines recently, and the averages are either a “call to action,” a sign of progress, or “meaningless.”

Confused? You should be. Because reports of testing data, whether they’re the SAT, the ACT, the NAEP, or some other alphabet car wreck, rarely reveal the grand aha moment claimed and are more so indicators of just how far off base the nation has gone in understanding what matters most for school children.

National Debate Is Out Of Whack

At every corner and level, the national debate about education policy is dangerously mired in squabbling about what “the data” reveal about the quality of American schooling, while in the meantime, teachers go begging for the very pencils students need to fill out the oh-so-critically-important tests.

Recent example: For some time now, the mediocre scores of American students taking internationally benchmarked tests have been posed as a “crisis.” The data prove our schools are “failing,” we’re told. And based on “the data,” whole campaigns from major corporations and political candidates exhort us to “solve this” horrific problem endangering the nation.

Now comes along a new book pricking a needle into this big, fat balloon of opprobrium. Public schools are not failing, the author, education historian Diane Ravitch, contends. And she bases her argument on, well, the data.

In a review from a local Florida newspaper, an impartial voice concurs, citing Ravitch’s recitation of data showing “notable improvements” on international tests, a narrowing of the test-score gap between African-American students and white students, and scores on the test known as The Nation’s Report Card.

What to believe: Critics of public schools are right that America should be number one in the world? Or defenders of public schools are right that public schools are doing unbelievably well given the difficult circumstances heaped upon them?

Or how about this: That maybe the vaunted data continuously extracted from massive databanks of test scores really don’t support conclusions drawn from them.

Back to those SAT test results . . .

What’s Wrong With The SAT

“The real question isn’t about why the scores went up or down,” as Valerie Strauss puts it from the link provided above, “but whether or not the results tell us anything valuable about a student’s achievement and abilities. They don’t.”

Strauss bases her conclusion on evidence drawn from a place where far to few observers of testing data dare to go – what’s actually on the tests.

Citing a New York Times interview with David Coleman, the president of the organization that owns the SAT, Strauss notes that makers of the test want it “substantially rewritten” due to its emphasis on testing for vocabulary that is “too esoteric for everyday use,” an essay section that “doesn’t value accuracy,” and a math section that isn’t “focused enough on concepts that matter.”

Problems With Tests Are Commonplace

Problems with the actual content of tests aren’t confined to the SATs. State tests used for all sorts of make-or-break decisions about students, teachers, and schools are also fraught with flawed design.

In fact, a new, in-depth series of reports from The Atlanta Journal-Constitution looks at what’s actually on state tests across the nation and concludes, “Mistakes have become near commonplace despite the tests’ high stakes.”

The reporters examined thousands of testing documents from across the country and found, “While lawmakers pumped up the repercussions of lagging scores, schools opened exam booklets to find whole pages missing. Answer-sheet scanners malfunctioned. Kids puzzled over nonsensical questions. Results were miscalculated, again and again.”

Their findings, likely the tip of an iceberg of bungled testing practices, include questions with “no right answer option, or more than one right answer,” wording that was unclear or misleading, test questions on “material never taught,” and items that “bordered on bizarre.”

To be fair to the testing companies themselves, the reporters note that “education officials failed to address why the tests were derailing or how government contributed to breakdowns,” while an “unprecedented volume of test-takers” and demanding timelines for scores “left testing contractors without enough time to figure out why something didn’t look right.”

The AJC reporters trace the problem to federal policies that “ramped up testing programs in 2006 to satisfy No Child Left Behind mandates.”

The Thousand Dollar Question

Despite the mounting evidence that testing does not revel the truth we think it does, the juggernaut nevertheless continues to roll on, as states spend billions more on ever-more expensive yet generally unproven new tests.

The impact that test data obsession has on day-to-day practices in schools cannot be overstated.

Decisions to pass or fail students, rate teacher “ineffective” or “effective,” even keep schools open or close them down are now being made to an ever-increasing extent based on scores.

Educators who now create school “reward programs” in a never-ending Skinnerian process to improve scores really believe they are “incentivizing learning.” As at least one teacher involved in these kinds of schemes recently enthused, “It is easy to teach them when they know they have these nice rewards.”

In the meantime, skeptics like Strauss pose the $1,000 question more people need to ask: “Why … use test scores for high-stakes purposes when the scores have very little, if any, meaning?”

Start With Saying “Stop”

Does this call for abandoning testing altogether? Of course not.

In a recent dialogue published in Education Week, two authorities on education testing point to a potential way out of this mess.

One expert, Bob Linn, warns, “Raising the stakes for our test-based accountability systems so that there will be consequences for individual teachers will make matters even worse. Cheating scandals will blossom. I think this annual testing is unnecessary and is a big part of the problem. What we should be doing is testing at two key points along the way in grades K-8, and then in high school using end-of-course tests.”

Another, Howard Everson, bemoans, “The multiple-choice paradigm first used in WWI and eventually used to satisfy the NCLB requirements has proven to be quite brittle, especially when applied in every grade 3-8 and used to make growth assumptions. The quick and widespread adoption of multiple-choice testing was in hindsight a big mistake for this country, but – now – states will tell you it is all they can afford.”

No one, however, in a leadership position seems to be taking this advice.

In the meantime, accountability-crazed “reformers” believing that policy can focus solely on these numeric “outcomes” are taking the nation’s schools – and the children inside them – over a cliff.

As the country continues to veer toward the precipice, the first order of business is to shout, “Stop.”

  • Sandee says:

    The tax money for schools is going to political groups, who get paid for coming up with bills and testing in order to look like they are doing something about “no child left behind”. They have an inaccurate estimate of why a child got left behind. They leave out that you have scary schools, bullying, weapons in schools, school supervisors manipulating testing to look like their students are doing better (charter schools have to do this to get you to give your money to them instead of to the public school system), lack of supplies, dirty old buildings, teachers focused on testing instead of on helping a student become a creative successful individual in his life, not just in a job for somebody else, and not as measured by a test that was set up by a group who believe school is only for getting you into a job.

    October 1, 2013 at 4:24 pm
  • Charles D. Aftoora says:

    I Agree with Sandee

    October 1, 2013 at 7:23 pm
  • Dr. John M. Stewart says:

    As a psychologist with 50 years of experience in teaching and testing, I find a great deal here that I agree with.

    October 1, 2013 at 7:26 pm
  • David J. Krupp says:

    High stakes testing in Reading and Math have drasticly narrowed the curriculum. It is not only Art and Music that have been eliminate from many schools but the time devoted to Science and Social Studies has also been reduced.

    October 1, 2013 at 7:49 pm
  • William Murdick says:

    I taught English at a state U in PA and, during the 1970s and 80s, thanks to a revolution in the teaching of writing, students came into my composition classes having written several essays and usually a library research paper. Then the testing craze hit Pennsylvania, and I began to get students who had written only topic-sentence-controlled paragraphs on surprise topics, because that’s what was on the test. No research, planning, drafting, revising on the basis of critiques, editing–no real writing, in other words. We had to start from scratch with these students.

    October 1, 2013 at 8:36 pm
  • drrichard says:

    Worked over the summer at a test grading center–$10.50 an hour for 3 weeks, along with 40 other people to do 140,000+ 5th grade math tests (actually just 3 questions, the rest being computer scored) from one state, with about 50 exams being handled by this company in several locations. But there were other companies doing this too; my guess is about 1000 standardized exams are used in K-12, each costing at least $100,000 to write, send, and grade. Who is benefiting from this? Not the students, but the educational establishment and those who write the tests, or own the companies that grade them. I’ve taught school for decades and will say what I saw in test content is ridiculous.

    October 1, 2013 at 9:04 pm
  • Sherri Ogden Wellington says:

    Amen. Schools are not a business…. ir is about children!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    October 1, 2013 at 11:03 pm
  • Jeanette Jessamy Fornier says: Testing is obsolete – what are we teaching our children and why? Our entire schooling systems are obsolete, created in an era that has gone.

    October 3, 2013 at 12:17 am
  • Peter Currie says:

    You can’t just plug capitalism, a business model, into the education system and expect it to work. What you’ll get is a business producing interchangeable cog-drone products. Hey, what would you expect from a system funded by big business, education?. ,

    October 3, 2013 at 12:22 am

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